First Ammonia

Inputs

Sun

Wind

Sun

Solar panels generated 3.4% of the world’s electricity in 2021, up from 1.0% in 2015. Since 2008, solar panel costs have declined from $4 / watt to under $0.50 / watt.

Wind

Wind generated 6.7% of the world’s electricity in 2021, up from 3.4% in 2015. Costs for wind have declined steadily from $3 / watt in 1995 to $2 / watt in 2010 and are now closing in on $1 / watt, as turbines become ever larger and more efficient.
Solar panels generated 3.4% of the world’s electricity in 2021, up from 1.0% in 2015. Since 2008, solar panel costs have declined from $4 / watt to under $0.50 / watt.
Wind generated 6.7% of the world’s electricity in 2021, up from 3.4% in 2015. Costs for wind have declined steadily from $3 / watt in 1995 to $2 / watt in 2010 and are now closing in on $1 / watt, as turbines become ever larger and more efficient.

Water

Nitrogen (from air)

Water

A solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) uses electrical energy to convert H₂O into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The SOEC runs intermittently to consume electricity when the wind is blowing and the sun is shining.

Nitrogen (from air)

Nearly 80% of air is nitrogen (N₂).
A solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) uses electrical energy to convert H₂O into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The SOEC runs intermittently to consume electricity when the wind is blowing and the sun is shining.
Nearly 80% of air is nitrogen (N₂).

Outputs

Fertilizer

Ammonia is dissolved in water and applied directly to the soil or converted to solids such as urea and ammonium nitrate.

Marine Fuel

Ships that run on LPG are already being prepared to switch in anticipation of the market for green ammonia.

Fertilizer

Marine Fuel

Ammonia is applied directly to the soil or converted to solids such as urea and ammonium nitrate.
Ships that run on LPG are already being prepared to switch in anticipation of the market for green ammonia.

Electricity 24/7

Stored ammonia can be burned to generate electricity when demand is high and renewable supply is low.

First Ammonia Motors

First Ammonia affiliate First Ammonia Motors is developing the first combustion engine to run on 100% ammonia. Green ammonia-powered cars and trucks can tap into the existing gasoline infrastructure.

Electricity 24/7

First Ammonia Motors

Stored ammonia can be burned to generate electricity when demand is high and renewable supply is low.
First Ammonia affiliate First Ammonia Motors is developing the first combustion engine to run on 100% ammonia. Green ammonia-powered cars and trucks can tap into the existing gasoline infrastructure.

Ammonia Production Today

Global Ammonia Uses

Ammonia as a Fuel

An ammonia-powered car or truck would need a tank 2.5× (= 34/13.6) as big or 2.0× (= 46/23) as heavy to go the same range as a gasoline-powered vehicle. Hydrogen is the most energy-dense fuel by weight but can never achieve the volumetric densities of ammonia and fossil fuels.

Ammonia is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but liquifies at -33 C at atmospheric pressure, or around 5 atmospheres at room temperature. In practice, ammonia is stored in cylinders, like propane, at 10 – 20 atmospheres. It costs 30× less to store than hydrogen, which has to be compressed to 700 atmospheres or refrigerated to -253 C. Hydrogen leaks through most metallic containers, and has prohibitively low volumetric energy density—a hydrogen-fueled Airbus A330-300 with the same range as the conventional version, would have no room for payload.

FA Plants will Stimulate Renewable Buildout

Flexible demand capacity results in increased market revenues for intermittent renewables. In Germany, the effect will be particularly pronounced for solar PV.

Demand Profiles (Exemplary for 2030, 400MW)

Exhaust When Ammonia is Burned

Steam

Nitrogen

(back to the air)